Physical Development

In the early 20th century, wildlife farm/zoo owners kept large animals in cages with steel bars. These sterile environments, coupled with the ever present gawking visitors prevented animals from performing natural acts such as mating and hunting for food. By the second half of the 20th century zoos had begun to create exhibits designed more for the benefit of the animals. Wildlife farm/zoo owners and operators constructed large enclosures in which landscaping and terrain simulated the natural environments of a savanna, a prairie or a forest.

Many of the world's leading wildlife farms and zoos now have giant aviaries - large enclosures where visitors can walk-through to watch birds nesting and flying overhead. The birds are housed in a huge enclosure complete with rain forest plants.

Many animals including over two-thirds of the world's mammal species are nocturnal - sleeping by day and becoming active at night. Watching these animals under normal daytime conditions can be a disappointing experience for visitors who come from far away places. To get around these difficulties, many wildlife farms and zoos now have nocturnal houses in which special lighting is used to reverse night and day. During the night, the interior of the house is rightly lit while during the day a dim light mimics night time but still enables daytime visitors to see the animals without disrupting their nocturnal activity. This day-for-night swap gives visitors a chance to watch nocturnal hunters, such as members of the cat family and civets, as well as fruit-eating bats.

In a wildlife farm, visitors normally see animals roaming free in a variety of landscapes that look uncannily like their natural habitats. These have become immensely popular attractions, and the income they generate helps farm/zoo owners meet the expense involved in raising this variety of animals.

In constructing facilities and cages for a wildlife farm, owners normally consider creating a large protected area that appears limitless but in fact has carefully concealed fences and boundaries to protect animals.

In the case of physical development for Lombija Wildlife Research Foundation's Wildlife Farm, a variety of methods was used in an animal park to mimic the terrain of a far-off habitat. Architectural design was employed to further enhance the wildlife's habitat through landscaping and other systems such as manmade river or water system.

The architectural design also considers the needs of animals in the wild before making any environmental enhancements to the animal park. Tall trees are provided, if necessary to accommodate the browsing needs of some animals that will require it. Foliage in some areas shall be enhanced to provide shelter or privacy for animals, while other areas shall be left barren of grass or other plants to enable animals to roll in the dirt to repel insects.

When animals feel comfortable in their habitat, they are able to perform natural courtship, mating and nurturing. As a result, these systems will maintain the best success rate for captive breeding and newborn survival.

When developing how animals shall be housed and exhibited, safety of animals and humans shall be given the highest priority in planning. Getting close to animals is part of the fun of visiting zoo, but from a design perspective, it has to be managed with care. Exhibits that allow visitors to come too close to wild animals may cause the animals to become alarmed or act aggressively. In nature most animals keep a safe distance between themselves and potential danger, and their instincts tell them to flee the moment this safety zone is breached. In general, zoo animals are much more tolerant of being approached than their wild counterparts, particularly if they have been born in captivity. But zoo animals also have their limits, and zoo planners consider these in mind in designing zoo exhibits. In animal parks, visitors can closely observe animals in their wild habitat from the safety of monorails or viewing decks, a method that protects animals and visitors alike.

Making animals easy to view is just one aspect of design considered for Lombija. Equally important is the provision of a stimulating environment for the animals themselves. Animal's needs vary enormously.

1. Wildlife Research, Breeding Center and Zoological Park

The following infrastructures and facilities shall be established within a 20.4 hectare property, envisioned to be world class wildlife research, breeding center and wood components.

A. Administration Building

A single-storey reinforced concrete and wood structure that will provide facilities and administrative nd technical staff of Lombija Wildlife Research Foundation, Inc.

B. Animal Hospital, Library and Kitchen/Food Preparation Area

This single-storey building that will be intended to provide the necessary facilities for the conduct of researches, breeding programs and support services. It shall be constructed with reinforced concrete and wood components.

Animal Hospital - is equipped with medical/research equipment such as microscope, endoscopy machine, incubators, microchip tagger and reader, oxygen tanks, glass cases, nebulizer and operating table and other equipment, supplies and materials necessary for an animal hospital.

Library - equipped with books, data bases for animal stocks of Lombija and other materials concerning wildlife

Kitchen/Food preparation Area - Primary facility for animal feeds and food storage and preparation. Zoo kitchens must stock a wide variety of meat, fish, insect, grains, fruits, vegetables and plants to meet the needs of different animals. This is where kitchen workers chop, and grind food, add vitamin supplements, and sometimes cook food to make it appetizing and nutritious for each animal. Some animals, such as deer, will thrive on plant matter of almost any kind, while many carnivorous mammals and birds will succeed on almost any kind of meat.

C. Restaurants

A single-storey structure composed of a main restaurant and a cluster of restaurants to provide refreshments and meals to visitors and guests during their short visit or stay in the area.

D. Animal Cages

These structures will provide shelters for animal species which shall be constructed in varied designs and sizes depending on the categories of animals such as avian, waterfowls, amphibians, primates, reptiles and mammals.

Design for animal cages shall consider precise requirements for some of the most interesting characteristics of specific animals to be caged. Temperature requirements shall also be considered for variety of zoo animals.

Bird Cages - Shall be made with mesh wire and steel with concrete base for parrots, parakeets, cockatoos, lories, lovebirds, hornbills and raptors, fruit doves and pigeons. It shall be an enclosed area with natural ground floor for big birds (i.e., emus, cassowary and ostrich).

Peafowl and Pheasants - another cage for peacocks, guinea fowl, turkey, pygmy bantams and pheasants.

Primates - Simulated cages made of steel and mesh wire with concrete base for apes, orangutans, marmosets, monkeys, tarsiers, siamang and gibbons. These cages were constructed around a live tree to simulate natural habitat for these type of animals.

Waterfowls - An aviary for ducks, geese swans and seagulls established in an area with a manmade creek.

Reptiles - Ponds established as natural habitats of turtles, tortoises and terrapins. A designated portion will be allocated for the habitat of the crocodiles.

Cats - Simulated cages for varied species and varieties of cats such as civets, jaguars, pumas, lion, tigers and caracals.

Canine - Cages for red fox and arctic fox.

Mammals - Cages for bears, kangaroos, capybara, kinkajous, raccoons, agoutis, coatimundis, opossums, Grisons and others.

E. Crocodile Pond and Waterfowl Aviary

An identified depressed portion within the project site which was developed as a manmade pond separately for the water habitat of the crocodiles and/or waterfowls.

F. Nocturnal Zoo

An area established designed naturally for nocturnal animals

G. Animal Quarantine

These facilities shall serve as an area for isolating sick animals that need to be quarantined. These facilities shall lie within an isolated portion of the project site.

H. Pet Cemetery

This area is set aside as burial ground for dead animals

I. Souvenir Shop

Provides unique items as mementoes of the Lombija Wildlife Research Foundation, Inc.

J. Other Facilities

  • Parking Space
  • Historical marker of project site
  • Access trails
  • Viewing Decks
  • Landscaping
  • Water system

2. Botanical Garden

Existing trees after inventory that will not be affected by development shall be preserved. Additional premium trees which are historically and naturally important shall be established in the botanical garden. These shall be enhanced with additional plants and species such as: fruit trees, ornamental foliar and flowering plants, palms and orchids. Establishment of these species shall blend with the natural landscape of the area. Production area for various fruits and vegetables shall likewise be established to sustain the food requirement of the animals and resident staff and personnel of LWRFI.

3. Heritage Plaza

  • Museum. One-storey building that will house historical odds and artifacts with special focus on historical events depicting Guimaras and the Philippine culture.
  • Chapel. A facility that will house the images of Our Lady of Nueva Valencia and the largest ivory crucifix in the Philippines.
  • Amphitheater. An outdoor facility to stage performances and cultural shows.

4. Mountain Resort

Guest Cottages. This will consist of five (5) units of two-storey buildings to be named Casa Jordan, Casa Nueva Valencia, Casa Buena Vista, Casa Sibunag and Casa Lorenzo representing the five (5) municipalities of Guimaras. The cottages shall be constructed with reinforced concrete and wood components. Each building will have two (2) rooms with minimum capacity of (2) persons per room.

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